- Iron- Iron is another common problem found in water supplies. It is easily identified by its brown staining on baths, sinks and clothes, etc. Iron is a mineral. It is usually in solution form in the water; that is why it appears clean at first until it comes in contact with the air. Then it oxidises and changes to brown.
Solution: Treatment considerations for various forms of Iron
•Aeration: Introducing oxygen to the water source to convert soluble iron to its insoluble form.
•Filtration: Media used to entrap and screen out oxidized particles of iron. Usually requires backwashing to remove accumulated iron.
•Water Softener: Removal of soluble iron by ion exchange.
•Manganese Greensand: An ion exchange sand material which is capable of removing iron. Adsorbs dissolved iron and requires chemical regeneration.
•Catalytic Filtration "BIRM": A granular filter medium that enhances the reaction between oxygen and iron and then filters the insoluble iron.
•Ozonation: A specialized form of aeration using ozone to convert soluble iron.
•Ion Exchange: Substituting an acceptable ion (such as sodium) for soluble iron.
•Sequestering: Adding chemical agents to water to keep metals like iron in solution to prevent characteristic brown stains.
•Chlorination: Chemical oxidizer used to convert soluble iron to an insoluble, filterable form.
- Manganese- Manganese is a mineral similar to Iron. It leaves a blackish trace rather than brown staining on baths, sinks and clothes, etc.
Solution: Treatment considerations for various forms of Manganese
•Aeration: Introducing oxygen to the water source to convert soluble manganese to its insoluble form.
•Filtration: Media used to entrap and screen out oxidized particles of manganese. Usually requires backwashing to remove accumulated manganese.
•Water Softener: Removal of soluble manganese by ion exchange.
•Manganese Greensand: An ion exchange sand material which is capable of removing manganese. Absorbs dissolved manganese and requires chemical regeneration.
•Catalytic Filtration "BIRM": A granular filter medium that enhances the reaction between oxygen and manganese and then filters the insoluble manganese.
•Ozonation: A specialized form of aeration using ozone to convert soluble manganese.
•Ion Exchange: Substituting an acceptable ion (such as sodium) for soluble manganese.
•Sequestering: Adding chemical agents to water to keep metals like manganese in solution to prevent characteristic black stains.
•Chlorination: Chemical oxidizer used to convert soluble manganese to an insoluble, filterable form.
Low PH (or acid water)
- Low PH (or acid water)-This is a problem found mostly in boggy or mountainous areas. It has a corrosive effect on metals and can cause a great deal of damage in the home. It can be identified by a greenish trace on baths and sinks.
Solution: Treatment considerations for various forms of Low pH (or Acid water)-
•Calcium: Introducing calcium to the water source to bring up the pH level of your water to pH 6.7- 7.0.
- Lime- Can be described as the HIDDEN ROBBER. It is estimated that hard water is costing the average family approximately €600 per year. For example your washing machine needs repair much more often, as will your immersion, electric iron, kettles, heating systems, etc. The reason is the build-up of limescale on elements causes them to overheat and burn out. Clothes in hard water areas are never pure white and tend to feel hard. Also skin and hair can be affected by hard water. Hard water is the most common problem found in our water supply. It is picked up when the water passes through limestone rocks on its journey through the earth. When the water is boiled the lime collects on elements or whatever else it comes into contact with. The scum which forms on baths and sinks is caused by soap not dissolving properly.Softened water provides real cost savings in service, maintenance and replacement of water heaters, dishwashers, washing machines and showers and also extends their life. It will improve the efficiency of hot water and heating systems, just 1.6mm (1/16?) of scale build-up in heating systems will cause a 12% loss in heating efficiency. Softened water can also remove existing scale deposits in hot water and heating systems as well as the scale around taps, in shower heads and stains on bath and basins.
Solution: Treatment considerations for various forms of Lime-
•Water Softener: Removal of soluble lime by ion exchange- this is an automatic ion exchange water softener, installed on your incoming mains water supply will remove the hardness from the water and allow you to enjoy the benefits of soft water wherever you live.
- Nitrates- High nitrate levels in water may be encountered in agricultural areas. Nitrates can leach from the soil into underground springs, contaminating well water. The extent of nitrate contamination, and how quickly it occurs, depends both on soil type and on depth of the water source. Nitrates can leach more easily in light sandy soils than in clay-based soils. Contamination is more common in shallow wells than in wells drilled into deeper springs. Heavy rains and flooding also affect the amount of nitrate that reaches both ground and surface water. High nitrate levels in drinking water can have adverse effects on human health.
Solution: Treatment considerations for various forms of Nitrates-
•Reverse Osmosis: 5-Stage RO System would be the solution to this chemical invasion.
- Coliforms- Coliforms are a broad class of bacteria found in our environment, including the faeces of man and other warm-blooded animals. The presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water may indicate a possible presence of harmful, disease-causing organisms. Total Coliform bacteria- are commonly found in the environment (e.g., soil or vegetation) and are generally harmless. If only total coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source is probably environmental. Fecal contamination is not likely. However, if environmental contamination can enter the system, there may be a way for pathogens to enter the system. Therefore, it is important to determine the source and to resolve the problem. FECAL Coliforms- exemplified by E. coli, indicate water contaminated with animal or human waste, i.e. faeces. Microbes in the faecal-contaminated water may cause food-borne illness that has short-term symptoms—nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting—or if severe enough may cause death.
Solution: Treatment considerations for various forms of Coliforms-
•Chlorination: If levels of Coliforms are below 3ppm then chlorination of well may suffice.
•Ultra Violet System: If levels of Coliforms are above 4ppm then a Ultra Violet System is recommended.